The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




The Zoo Is Two

Particle physics is the domain of high energy electromagnetic interactions. Electromagnetic control and acceleration are the means of discovery.  Similar to energy, the particle zoo's different manifestations can be divided into two opposing families: leptons and baryons. 

Evidence of electromagnetic broken symmetry would occur in both the atomic and sub-particle realm.  The evidence would be in both spectral evidence in the emission and absorption of energy as well as in the sub-particle realm.

Large electron-positron particle accelerators are some of the most powerful machines ever built. Counter rotating electrons and positrons smash into each other releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy.

An article in Scientific American [1] describes the creation and decay of a very short lived particle the Zo. This particle conveys the weak interaction commonly associated with broken symmetry. How do two impacting particles hide the broken symmetry of the weak interaction?

This simple positron-electron collision in the creation and decay of the Zo is an example of an inherent problem of high energy physics. Does the Zo represent a particle, an energy gap or just the difference between a positive and negative wave components? The Zo mass is determined by the offsets between the Z+ and the Z- and is a neutral current.  The positive, negative and neutral triplets states are formed without an understanding of their antecedents. 

Are increasingly higher energies answering basic relationships?  What is the purpose and origin of neutral particles of seeming fleeting existence similar to the Zo particle.

Current models of positrons and electrons always describe annihilation as the paramount common characteristic.  Yet these are free particles.  What about bound states? The crystal lattice has both positrons and electrons, yet annihilation is not a normal occurrence. What is the difference between an electron and a positron? The simple answer is charge, but examine other factors.

To carry this idea one step farther, an electron when it is moved into a negative field becomes in every characteristic opposite and inverted from its former nature. (negative times negative = positive or positron)

"Whatever frame you watch this process from, the electron at some stage changes into a positron moving backwards in time (one T), and then later turns back to an electron moving forwards in time (another T)”[2].

This positron-electron interaction hides broken symmetry in electromagnetic processes as well as addressing the positron-electron imbalance with present models.

The further question, is positive energy greater than negative energy as manifest in the two vector components of the electromagnetic wave? Yes! This is manifest in both the Circular Model spin states and the particle physics gaps in high energy tracks (commonly called a neutral current or particle) found in tracking chambers and devices.

Energy differences plus and minus 1/2 spin states. The energy levels of a free electron gas in the presence of an applied magetic field for absolute zero temperature. From: Solymar, L., & Walsh. D., 1984. Lectures on the Electrical Properties of Materials, 3rd. ed. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.


In the atomic case, the positive hemisphere spin states are predominately plus 1/2 (denoting higher energy than minus 1/2 spin). In the particle physics case positive tracks have more energy than negative. The offset between the two became neutral particles and were attributed with great mass to account for their short existence at that particular energy level. In sub-atomic pair creation both particle and antiparticle occur. How can this happen unless particleness can only be a result of duality of opposing characteristics.

One of the first attempts to push duality into singularity happened with Planck.  He was faced with high and low energy curves of blackbody radiation. He blended a curve that became known as Planck's constant for emission and absorption of radiation. The result is the obscuring of high frequency-low frequency radiation sources within each atom. (see spectral evidences).

In the sub-particle physics this duality prevails. This brings up two problems. First, if particles are composites with associated frequency equivalents, then nodal points can only occur at specific locations. These positions can only occur where both magnetic and electropositive vectors meet, but do not cross. Second, depending upon the process, small product and energy imbalances occurred. This aberration was first seen in radioactive decay.  In order to account for this imbalance, a small nearly massless particle was postulated (now called neutrinos). If there is sub-particle pair creation, then where are all the positrons in the current atomic model?  The positive-negative polarity approach found in the Circular Model provides the structure that is lacking in the present atomic model.

[1] Breuker, H., Dreverman, H., Grab, C., Rademakers, A. A., & Stone, H., 1991. Tracking and Imaging Elementary Particles. Scientific American. August, p. 58-63.

[2] Feynman, R. P, & Weinberg, S., 1986. Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 47.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.