The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Quantum Encoding

A question arises of how quantum mechanics has been so successful in determining the measurement of many of the electrical attributes of the atom,  yet, at the same time the atomic structure is a puzzle that some of the world biggest machines and greatest scientist haven't solved.

The Schroedinger Equation (one of the major vehicles of analysis) bases its energy measurement on the n = 1, n = 2, n = 3, etc., quantum levels of the atom while initiating the measurement on the S sub-shell. (see exhibits of shells S, P, D, & F) This has the effect of being energetically correct for the entire major shell, but some of the less energetic structural traits are overpowered.  For example optical spectra inverts after shells become half filled.  How does the smeared electron cloud (the orthodox view) incorporate discrete boundary conditions seen in both absorption and emission spectra?

Albert Messiah's text, Quantum Mechanics, in discussing spectra makes the point "...the Schroedinger theory does not take the electron spin into account" [1]. Energy differences are distinct between spin up and spin down states, yet the equation obscures the distinction.

Use of the Circular Model of the Atom is an important aid in giving explanations to the structures necessary for the solutions and understanding of physical phenomena.

Example: derivation of two types of nuclear magic numbers, one that originates near negative dipole barrier, the other from filled shells.

Example: sub-shell closures in both positive and negative fields of the atom with electron and positron spin alignments. The down spin along the alkali earths and the up spins in the nitrogen group are indicative of sub-shell closures in opposite fields.)

The introduction of quantum number l brought with it a higher and lower state splitting.

Most important it hid the origin of spectral lines of the 2P3/2 in the negative field portion of the atom.  The result is anomalous splitting in moderate magnetic fields that only could be reconciled by assuming a double valuedness of the magnetic moment of the electron. Yet this anomaly is eliminated by using the Circular Model.

[1] Messiah, A., 1969. Quantum Mechanics. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., p. 419.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.