The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Sub-Shell Symmetry

In early spectroscopic analysis of the atom, the major shell energy levels were denoted K, L, M, N, etc.  Within these major shells some electrons made no contribution to the total angular momentum or magnetic moment of the atom.  When this occurred physicists inferred either a major shell closure (ex. inert gases) or a sub-shell closure within a major shell (ex. alkali earths). Sub-shell closures became aids in determining the structure of the atom.

In the present case of the Circular Model, the sub-shells are important in confirming the dipolar approach as well as confirmation of the proper dipole placement within the atom. The closure of sub-shell in the 2S, 3S, 4S, etc., energy levels is confirmed by the 1S0 ground state of the alkali earth spectra. This is the same spectral ground state terms as the inert gas group. For example, selecting the M shell with the 3S sub-shell, first we have sodium with one electron spin up. Add one more electron with spin down and we have magnesium closing the 3S sub-shell in a 1S0 ground state. In the positive hemisphere of the Circular Model the S sub-shell closes the second electron after the major shell closes. (n = 2, n = 3, n = 4,) In the negative field hemisphere the positron sub-shell closure occurs as far from its field dipole as possible.

The closure group having a buffer between them and the positive dipole.  In this case the plus 1/2 spin alkali metals and a 2S1/2 ground state shields the negative 1/2 spin sub-shell closure of the alkali earths from the positive dipole.

If we reference back to Dirac and his four states of the electron equations, they give some insights into electron behavior in both positive and negative fields. In the negative matter state everything runs backwards such as energy, time, and helicity.

Pauli, in his Nobel Lecture, discussed Dirac's electron states, "...there was one consequence of this theory which was obviously in contradiction with experience.  The energy of the electron can have, according to the theory, both positive and negative values, and in external electromagnetic fields, transitions should occur from states with one sign of energy to states with the other sign" [1]. Thus within the Circular Model we have inherent in its structure the electron states that Dirac and Pauli considered. 

When we move the electron from the positive field to negative field the sign changes on the electron, i.e. to a positron, if this were a free electron and a free positron, they would annihilate.  Here they are in a bound state within the atom and multiplicities that prevents this. The Law of Alternative Multiplicities is what gives electrons and positrons 1/2 integer and full integer states. John Wheeler and Feynman discussed the above possibilities.

Feynman reminiscing, while an assistant of John Wheeler, "I received a phone call from him in the middle of the night, when he said to me 'I know why all electrons and positrons have the same charge!' Then he explained further, 'They are all the same electron!'...Later on, I was able to make this kind of idea quantitative, by interpreting a positron as being an electron whose phase is going backwards in time..." [2].

The Circular Model of the Atom integrates electrons and positrons into bound states within the atom. This shows up in the molecular crystal lattice as positron holes or electron positions. This confronts the apparent imbalance of positrons verses electrons in the universe.  Both have similar representation in the crystal lattice.  Yet the present orbital atomic theory hides the specific distribution of positrons and electrons in the plus 1/2 spin and minus 1/2 spin of the smeared electron cloud theory. An electron with a minus charge, when moved into a negative field (minus) results a positron with similar mass, but opposite charge and spin in its normal ground state. Further evidence from negative sub-shell closures.

What characteristics would a negative matter sub-shell closure have? It would be inverted and all characteristics would be opposite in every aspect to a positive field sub-shell closure. The closure would be an electron in a negative hemisphere of positrons shielded from annihilation by alternating field multiplets. To be completely opposite from its positive sub-shell counterpart it would have to be the most remote from its field dipole (negative pole). Contrast this with the 1S0 alkali earth terms and their proximity to the positive dipole. The nitrogen group multiplet fills the requirements.  They have positive 1/2 spin electrons along the representative group. This contrasts with the negative 1/2 spin in the alkali earths. It is the most distant from the negative dipole and they are a row of electrons in a sea of positrons (holes).

Whereas a positive hemisphere sub-shell closure makes no contribution to angular momentum and has no magnetic moment, the negative hemisphere sub-shell would be diametrically opposite. It would have large relative angular momentum and be strongly repelled by the negative dipole.

The nitrogen-bismuth group elements match the spin characteristics and location of a negative state shell closure. Bismuth of all the elements is the most diamagnetic, with strongest repulsion from the negative dipole of any element. This row of elements belonging to the nitrogen group are part of a sub-shell closure that occurs in an antimatter environment that is contrary to the normal positive field and electron sub-shell closure characteristics. That entire group is strongly repelled by the dipole field sign and simultaneously has large angular momentum.

These are just some of the numerous explanations provided by the Circular Model of the Atom with respect to the structure of the atom.

[1] Pauli, W., 1945. Exclusion Principle and Quantum Mechanics. Nobel Prize Lecture, emphasis added.

[2] Feynman, R. P., 1971. Lectures on Gravitation. s.l: California Institute of Technology, p. 15-8.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.