The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Circular Periodic Table

A basic feature of the Circular Model of the Atom is a polarity dipole that reflects positive and negative fields within the atom and the table.  Russian physicists well stated the field concept, "A constant electromagnetic field, independent of time, separates into an electric and a magnetic field.  The two are very dissimilar.  Nevertheless, the time-dependent electromagnetic field is a unified blend of the electric and magnetic fields.  The energy of an electromagnetic wave concentrates alternately in the electric and magnetic field..." [1]. What is the geometrical structure of the mass within the atom that generates an alternating positive and negative field?

Figures 1A and 1B. Element buildup:

electron buildup


As can be seen from Figures 1A and 1B of the Circular Model, the build-up of electrons is characterized by an opposite arrangement in either a positive or negative field with a distinctive feature, that half way through each shell a flip process occurs along a dipole polarity line bisecting the atomic shells.

In the electron build-up, the outer electrons benefit from having more space when moving radially from the center of the atom.  Electrons start having more room along the circumference of the N shell.  Shell energy levels are very close and coulomb repulsions are less intense than in the inner shells.   Now, when n = 4, or N spectral notation, there are shifting electrons in the S and D shells. This is supported by experimentally derived energy values that occurs in the alkali metals and alkali earth series. Textbook authors Robert Eisberg and Robert Resnick noted; "For instance, the energy of the 4S subshell is lower than that of the 3D subshell for K atoms, and the next few atoms of the periodic table" [2]. This is where irregular electron movement occurs. The Circular Model of the Atom unifies the anomalous electron into the periodic table.

This atypical electron build-up is based upon a background of a positive and negative vector field in the electron ordering sequence.  The new model integrates the Actinide and Lanthanide series within the periodic table itself, rather than as separate addendums outside the main body of elements.

If we are to follow Einstein's concept of matter/energy equivalance, then a field must have both positive and negative characteristics.  It follows that placement of atomic sub-components would be in both field environments, yet producing different attractions and repulsions within the atom itself. This unique vector field provides the boundries and gaps that are lacking in the present table. It is necessary to unite all these positive and negative fields with electrons, protons, and neutrons in building up the neutral atoms.

[1] Kagnov, M. & Tsukernik, V., 1985. The Nature of Magnetism. Moscow: Mir, p. 8.

[2] Eisberg, R. & Resnick, R., 1985. Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, p. 332.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.