The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Spin States and Superconductivity

Mathematical physics has applied probability analysis to the spin states and this has become part of the definition of electron spin.  The concept that a specific periodic table order exists in the electron shell spin ground states goes counter to common opinion. Yet, in using the new Circular Model of the Atom, order in core electron spin states is realized. As elements build up there are shifts between the number of electrons in the shells. These fluctuations need to be incorporated into a dynamic model. 

Superconductivity is related to electron spin states and is a consequence of S shell electron movement.  The Circular Model of the Atom shows this dynamic electron shifting. S-shell electrons that shift from shell to shell are called "sliders." They occur only in the alkali metal and alkali earth portion of the periodic table. Phase shifting in the spin states of the alkali's has created the sensitivity to temperature that is critical to high Tc compounds. The normal ground state S1 spin of copper has a + 1/2 spin state. The copper (II) ion is normally in a - 1/2 spin state. When heat is added it changes the D10 ion to a + 1/2 spin state.  The heat has the effect of overriding the law of alternative multiplicities, leaving the S shell with two + 1/2 electrons, which bond with oxygen in the O2 state. This establishes closed shell configurations that do not impact electrons either positively or negatively.

Pauli had problems with this area in working with the anomalous Zeeman effect.  A weak magnetic field exhibited splitting of spectra that was not present in either a strong electrical or strong magnetic field. Pauli concluded that the shifting spectral lines was not attributable to the atom as a whole. He determined that the source of the problem originated in the alkali metals and alkali earths. This same shifting of electrons is involved in high Tc superconductivity phase shifts.

What causes this high sensitivity to both magnetic and electrical change in both anomalous Zeeman effects and high Tc superconductivity? Spin state theory when coupled with adjustments for polarity fields in nonstoichiometric metallic compounds. The reasons only small amounts of Ca, Sr, or Ba are needed in superconductivity compounds are two-fold:

One, the above elements are slider elements that have a propensity for shifting electrons from S shell to D shell configurations. This can have the effect of a shell closing.

Secondly, adding extra oxygen can adjust for the negative spin hemisphere deficiency or adding the negative spin elements that occur in the group IIA elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) This has the effect within the model of having all elemental spin states being the same as the respective hemisphere's positive or negative field when ionized. Nitrogen is distant from its field negative pole and its electron spin state easily changes. Once superconductivity is achieved, the addition of more Ca, Sr, and Ba has the opposite effect on the compound because the balance between hemispheres is destroyed [1].  The result of the spin adjustments is that now the superconducting compounds have no scattering effects or hindrance in the conductance of electricity.  When electron spins are opposite from its respective hemispheric field, then the higher the resistance of the metallic compound.

The rare earth elements have some of the most complicated spin structures in the entire periodic table. Figure 3 depicts the ground state spin of the entire periodic table. How accurate is that representation in the rare earths?  A recent text on solid state physics gives an example of L-S coupling to find the Lande' g factor for the ground state of the Erbium ion, with 11 f ions. "Seven electrons in erbium contribute + 1/2 to S' while four contribute - 1/2, so S'= 3/2" [2].  Summing the spin states gives the necessary S'= 3/2. Some perturbations from adjacent electrons may be present, but usually they are quite distant from their field pole. The above example is in conformity with the quantum numbers of spin and magnetism, yet it can be determined much easier with the Circular Model of the Atom.

Generally, it doesn't matter which rare earth elements are used as insulators in the superconductor unit cell.  The reason being they all have an oxidation state of + 3, with the electrons ionized off the 6S1, 6S2, and #57 sites. As the rare earth series build up in the F shell, the electrons are buried and have little impact on superconductivity.

[1] Xiao, G., Ciepak, M. Z., & Chien, C. L., 1988. Phys. Rev. B. 38(11826).

[2] Christman, J. R., 1988. Fundamentals of Solid State Physics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, p. 354.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.