PART IINTRODUCTORY SUPPORTIVE EVIDENCESGyromagnetic RatioThe ratio between the magnetic moment and the angular momentum of the atom is the gyromagnetic ratio. Physicists have had problems with this in terms of both the classical atom and the quantum atom. The problem is that the ratio comes out “2” rather than the theoretical value predicted “1.” Compounding the problem were different experimental results. Iron turned out to be too small by 47 percent and nickel by 43 percent. Different ratios for different elements do not correlate very well with the quantum cloud concept. If the angular momentum of the atom is examined from the current concept of an orbiting electron probability cloud, the ratio should be 1 to 1. By using the Circular Model and the electron flip, then half the amount of angular momentum occurs, and the ratios and experiment agree. This is because the electron building up process occurs in connection with a positive and negative approach to the atom. All atoms have to have opposite fields to accomplish this building up process necessary for atomic existence. Physicists have used relativity to explain away the differences in gyromagnetic ratio theoretically predicted (1 to 1), and experimentally determined (2 to 1). Generally, we think of relativistic adjustment to equations and experiments as “fine tuning,” but here there is a basic discrepancy that is a result of not having the correct concept of an atom. We observe a similar problem with the electron. Davies, in his book Superforce, makes a similar observation about the electron: “The curious `double image’ view of the world possessed by electrons and other quantum particles, is considered to be a fundamental property of nature. It leads to many unexpected, observable effects. For example, the magnetic field produced by the electron's spin is twice the value that would be generated by an electrically charged ball” [1]. If an electron is composed of both positive electrical and negative magnetic wave components, then it has an opposite factor within it. Therefore, you would have a condition similar to the Circular Model of the Atom gyromagnetic ratio being in accord with the experimental ratio—both the electron ratio and the atom gyromagnetic ratio being 2. The relativistic quantum field theory describing the interactions of electrons and photons is known as ‘quantum electrodynamics,’ or ‘QED’ for short. QED combines Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and relativity... The spinning electron acts like a little magnet and the strength of the 'magnetic moment' of the electron can be calculated in QED. The result may be expressed in terms of the `g factor’ of the electron. The classical value predicted for g is 1, which is less than half the value predicted by QED. If the electron has a magnetic moment then both positive and negative subcomponents are present in the negative electron. It is no longer a point particle and analytically must be approached by a duality of mass (positive and negative) concept with spin being the distinguishing characteristic between positive and negative charge. [1] Davies, P., 1984. Superforce: The Search for a Grand Unified Theory of Nature. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 34.
