The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




The Emperor's New Clothes

The profusion of charged sub-particles is seemingly never ending. To match the sub-particles, new neutral particles are generated to account for force relationships among charges. Bosons of massive size with fleeting lifetimes, neutral current particles with ghostly characteristics that are verifiable only to a theoretical construct.

Inquiry can be initiated at the very basic level of an electromagnetic wave. It is a 90 degree transverse wave with two segment carrying electropositive and electronegative components.  Why two components and not one? The total non-mixing of the wave vectors have an attractive-repelling effect dependent on sign of the charge.

"Not one but three intermediate bosons, along with the photon, serve as force particles in electroweak theory.  They are the positively charged W+ and negatively charged W- bosons, which respectively mediate a class of weak interactions, and the Z0 particle, which mediates a class of weak interactions known as neutral current processes" [1].

[1] Quigg, C., 1985. Elementary Particles and Forces. Scientific American. April, p. 12.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.