The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.



Benzene Ring

One of the great puzzles of organic chemistry is the bonding structure of benzene (C6H6).  X-ray studies have determined that all sides of the carbon hexagon are equal, hence all interior angles are equal. Carbon provides four electrons for valence bonding. If we use a double bond to each adjacent carbon atom on each side, then no electron for the hydrogen valence bond is left. If the valence electron is used for hydrogen then there is a shortage for double bonding of adjacent carbon atoms. This would result in differing interior angles, which are not found.
"What is the nature of these bonds?  These cannot be single covalent bonds, otherwise one bond in each carbon atom would be free.  But they cannot be double bonds either, since for this to be the case each carbon atom lacks one valence" [1].

Pauling, in his book The Nature of the Chemical Bond, suggested a sharing arrangement for the electrons, this idea developed into RVB or resonance valence bond theory. The electrons have no definite locale, but resonate in some manner between all the carbon atoms. This became strictly a quantum attribute of the atom. However, Nancy Cartwright in her book How the Laws of Physics Lie, raises the question of the ground state of carbon.  She quotes Albert Messiah's, Quantum Mechanics [2] to the effect that carbon has five distinct energy levels, yet current quantum models do not adequately account for this.

Figure 1. The levels of the ground state of the carbon atom; (a) in the central field approximation (V1 = V2 = 0); (b) neglecting the spin-orbit coupling (V2 = 0); (c) including spin-orbit coupling. [From Albert Messiah, Quantum Mechanics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1961, p. 703. Cited in Nancy Cartwright, How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983, p. 67.]

This raises the question whether the benzene ring bonding problem is related to the five separate and distinct energy levels that Messiah noted? If we use the Circular Model of the Atom, then the positive pole resolves the fifth energy level problem that Messiah cites (four electrons and the positive pole of the dipole).

This then changes the benzene ring problem. The positive pole (in the Circular Model) bonds with the negative dipole of the next adjacent carbon atom.  Then the first electron in the outer shell next to the positive dipole bonds with the last electron in the outer carbon shell nearest the negative dipole. This leaves two electron's left. This is where the hydrogen bond occurs. Hydrogen is quite unusual in that it has an exposed proton nuclear structure.

The second electron of the carbon outer shell is in a 1S0 state with a subshell closure at that point.  That particular electron coupled with the subshell closure behaves like a hole or positron position. Therefore, the second and third carbon electrons in the outer shell bond positive to negative and negative to positive, resulting in a very strong hydrogen bond.  They do not annihilate because of the different mass and fields involved.

[1] Tarasov, L., 1986. Symmetrical World. Moscow: Mir, p. 52, emphasis added.

[2] Messiah, A., 1961. Quantum Mechanics. Vol II. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co. p. 703.

[3] Cartwright, N., 1983. How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. 67-69.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.