The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





Problems in sub-particle physics harken back to attributes arising from Planck's radiation distribution formula. Planck modified two different formulas to derive a single blackbody radiation emission and absorption curve. One formula achieved good results with high energy models and the other formula was suitable with low energy sources [1]. The Circular Model of the Atom splits the radiation emission and absorption into two distinct sources. The model's distinctive splitting is very helpful in untangling relationships in sub-particle physics. This website attempts to provide insights in using a different approach to particle physics.

Planck's constant was a fitted curve that reconciled the high and low energy components into a solitary constant that extended into all aspects of physics [2]. Dissimilar aspects of radiation emission and absorption of matter were blended into one central constant. This resulted with progress in many areas, but inexplicable disarray in other facets of physical theory.  Antecedents of this dichotomy can be ascribed to Planck's constant. Subsequently the buildup process of sub-atomic particles into bound state components of the atom was clouded by conflicting theories.  The original absorption-emission frequencies relationships of matter were hidden in Planck's constant.       

The Circular Model of the Atom with a central polarity feature establishes distinctive sources of high frequency-low frequency within each atom. This enables the placement of sub-particles in a specific area of the atom compatible with the sub-particle's properties of charge, mass and spin in contrast with the smeared electron cloud of the current standard model.

The dipole model contributes a feature central to the placement of sub-atomic particle in the nuclear and atomic structure of each element. The next section uses this dipole property with the "aufbau" or buildup principle for the proper placement of spin, mass and charge of the various particles. This new model with specific positive and negative field structure provides the setting for sub-particle placement. They consequently become atoms which build into the periodic table of the elements. This process is known as nucleosynthesis.

[1] "Neither, however, was able to reproduce the experimental intensity distribution over the entire spectrum: Wein's formula agreed well only with very short wavelengths, while the Rayleigh-Jeans formulation was satisfactory only for very long wavelengths." Cantore, E., 1969. Atomic Order. Cambridge (Massachusetts): MIT Press, p. 68. 

[2] "Planck realized that the radiation law had to be revised in such a way as to agree with Wein's expression for short wavelengths, while departing from it for long wavelengths. This he succeeded in doing by means of a simple mathematical device; he merely replaced integrals by sums in his calculations" Cantore, E., 1969. Atomic Order. Cambridge (Massachusetts): MIT Press, p. 69. 




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.