The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Red Shift and the Circular Periodic Table

An error in the selection and use of specific spectral lines as a measurement of cosmological distances by spectral red shift is suggested. The terms of the alkali doublet approach presently used has the strongest terms emitting and absorbing energy from a negative field of a new atomic model.  The Circular Model of the Atom uses a semi-rotational approach along with the `aufbau’ principle to achieve elemental periodicity. It is unique in the use of positive and negative spin states building up within distinct dipole boundaries. These boundaries give rise to the splitting of the `J' states into upper and lower states that are the origin of the alkali doublet spectral lines used in redshift measurement. One line source is from the positive field and the other the negative field. The negative field source is the basis of the problem.  A result of this approach suggests that red shift measurements in determining stellar distances are overstated.

Hubble's law is based on distance being proportional to redshift, uses the assumption that remote galaxies would project larger redshifts.  Milton Humason photographed the spectra and Hubble measured the brightness. The calcium II, K and H absorption lines at wavelengths 3933.664 and 3968.470 Angstroms were generally used. If the interstellar object is moving away from us the light will be shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. For example, Delta Laporis spectrum K line is shifted 1.298 Angstrom's toward the red [1]. The assumption is then made that the displacement is a result of the speed of the object moving away from us by dividing the amount of displacement of the normal wavelength at rest, and multiplying by the speed of light, or 99 kilometers per second.

One of the features of the new Circular Model of the Atom is a negative field which many of the -1/2 spin ground state elements originate. When light is emitted or absorbed from this specific area of the atom it results in anomalous spectral splitting.

This distinctive multiplet splitting is found in the light elements as well as in more complex spectra. The n and l levels split into two components J = l +1/2 & J = l -1/2.  The negative splitting results in spectral lines, that when placed in a modest magnetic field results in the 'anomalous Zeeman effect.'  The anomalous spectral lines split farther apart than regular line spectra separations.

The alkali earth element (calcium II) that Humason used as his yardstick for measuring the distances of the stars had one spectral line (K line) originating from the negative field portion of the element. (Circular Model) 

The question then arises whether electromagnetic fields are uniform throughout the universe?  If one area is substantially more negative than another, then the redshifted calcium II is useless as a measuring instrument. In effect the K line is receiving an extra portion of the negative energy inherent in the electromagnetic domain that permeates the cosmos. The Calcium K line shift is then a shift resulting from negativity rather than distance or speed. 

Another prominent spectral emission is the 21-cm line from interstellar hydrogen. This strong emission line has a wavelength of 6563 A.  It arises from the jump between the third energy level and the second level with the concurrent emission of light. The question naturally arises as to the source of the unique line strength in the third energy level. The orbital model has a series of progressively higher energy levels with no peculiar structure to account for anomalous line emission strength.

The Circular Model's structure has this unique energy level arising from a negative field with its concurrent greater potential energy difference. When emission occurs from the third level it results in the strong 21-cm line of hydrogen.

[1] Standage, A. R., 1956. The Red-Shift. In: New Frontiers in Astronomy. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, pp. 309-315.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.