The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Superconductivity Summary

The complexities in understanding superconducting perovskities can be greatly simplified by using the Circular Model of the Atom.  The nonstoichiometric chemical compounds can be understood in terms of distinctive and separate positive-negative fields.  Negative spin elements (like oxygen in the Circular Model) need more units to reach charge neutrality. (Ex. the planes of copper II oxide, needing more oxygen to achieve superconductivity).

Substitution of negative configuration spin elements (like nickel) have the effect of killing superconductivity in a very graphic way when using the Circular Model.  Opposite is the effect of overloading the anion with an abundance of positive element cations.

Rare earth ions generally substitute for Y or La in high Tc compounds because the valence electrons that are given up are in the S shell area of the periodic table (Circular Model).  The electrons that are added in each succeeding element are buried within the 4F shell and have little impact upon superconductivity. Even the rare earth elements with large magnetic moments (Gd and Eu) are superconducting because the ionization of rare earth elements to the 3+++ state occurs in the highly positive area of each rare earth element.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.