The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.


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This quantum chart shows field relationships. The configuration of electron spins develop spacial fields. The right side is a predominantly positive field; the left side is predominantly a negative field. Each field, however, is a mixture of positive and negative spins that give rise to element characteristics making atoms Planck oscillators. The chart shows the ground state electrons, and whether they are attracted to the north polarity field or the south polarity field. The polarity fields derive from empirically observed orbital spins. These spins above correlate with the quantum chart below. In some cases such as gadolinium and curium, there is some electron drifting. In other cases, the sliders are the mechanism that allows electrons to move from the s orbitals to the d orbitals.

The magnetic moment or ml is the relationship of two electrons in the field. Depending on the orbital energy n along with the azumuthal l produce ml values of 0 for the first n energy level, -1, 0, 1 for the second n energy level, and -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 for the third n, etc.


1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.