## PART I## INTRODUCTORY SUPPORTIVE EVIDENCES## Quantum TheoryOver the years quantum theory resulted in tremendous advances in science. The basis of modern atomic physics is built upon the measured values provided by quantum theory. This website is not intended to demean the accuracy of the measured values of that theory, but instead to illustrate that the new Circular Model of the Atom provides a clearer conceptualization of physical phenomena than the conclusions derived from the standard model. The inability to visually conceptualize the quantum atom dates from physicists earliest endeavors. Jagdish Mehra's and Helmut Rechenberg's definitive quantum history traces a philosophical split from early quantum physics. They wrote, "It was the loss of visualizability in the more recent quantum theoretical description of atomic structure and spectra, which made Stark revise his former positive attitude towards quantum theory. While Stark retired completely, and Einstein partially, from the forefront of research in quantum theory, many new people joined the ranks of quantum physicists"[1]. Paul Davies, in his book The standard model, derived by quantum theory, lacks understanding of initial or ground states of the atom. What do atoms look like, and how do they function or operate? An analogy to the quantum theory can be made by the income statement and balance sheet used in accounting. The income statement provides information about changes from state one to state two; it has a definite starting and ending time period. Likewise, quantum theory measures the change between state one and state two, during some measurable time period. In accounting, the balance sheet provides a description of the assets and properties of the original state. It also provides a final description of the ending state after it has been impacted by the changes of the income statement. Conversely, quantum theory does measure quite accurately the change in electrical values, but it has difficulty describing both of the initial state and the final state of the atom. Theorists merely tell us that the quantum atom is not subject to detailed description, but rather is a depiction based upon a statistical probability approach. (ex. smeared electron cloud). Scientists distill atomic structures of atoms through statistical probability and approximations that arise from the quantum philosophy. This probability approach is also analogous to the work of actuaries. In their work actuaries describe the longevity of say one million people. Statistically, actuaries can show us that a calculated number of the one million people will die in a given period of time and the prediction accurately models the population described, but they are incapable of giving meaningful details of the final cause of death for each individual. Quantum theory has the same problem, i.e., statistically accurate but not very helpful as to a beginning condition or a final state description. The quantum philosophy has abandoned attempts to create a visual model that correlates with the electrical values quantum measures. The Circular Model of the Atom serves as not only a periodic table but also as an atomic model that corroborates the basic electrical values as set forth by quantum theory and also gives a more classical visual basis for those values. The remaining parts of this section will highlight how the Circular Model of the Atom provides new insights into different phenomena beginning with the Pauli exclusion principle. [1] Mehra, J. and Rechenburg, H., 1982. [2] Davies, P., 1982. |