The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Quantum Theory

Over the years quantum theory resulted in tremendous advances in science.  The basis of modern atomic physics is built upon the measured values provided by quantum theory.  This website is not intended to demean the accuracy of the measured values of that theory, but instead to illustrate that the new Circular Model of the Atom provides a clearer conceptualization of physical phenomena than the conclusions derived from the standard model.

The inability to visually conceptualize the quantum atom dates from physicists earliest endeavors. Jagdish Mehra's and Helmut Rechenberg's definitive quantum history traces a philosophical split from early quantum physics.  They wrote, "It was the loss of visualizability in the more recent quantum theoretical description of atomic structure and spectra, which made Stark revise his former positive attitude towards quantum theory.  While Stark retired completely, and Einstein partially, from the forefront of research in quantum theory, many new people joined the ranks of quantum physicists"[1]. Paul Davies, in his book Other Worlds, notes the current quantum philosophy, “Science, it is usually believed, helps us to build a picture of objective reality – the world ‘out there.’  With the advent of the quantum theory, that very reality appears to have crumbled, to be replaced by something so revolutionary and bizarre that its consequences have not been properly faced.  As we shall see, one can either accept the multiple reality of parallel worlds, or deny that a real world exists at all, independently of our perception of it.  Laboratory experiments performed in the last few years have demonstrated that atoms and subatomic particles, which people usually envisage as microscopic things, are not really things at all, in the sense of having a well-defined, independent existence and a separate, personal identity”[2].  Our ability to describe reality has disappeared with the rise of quantum physics.

The standard model, derived by quantum theory, lacks understanding of initial or ground states of the atom.  What do atoms look like, and how do they function or operate? An analogy to the quantum theory can be made by the income statement and balance sheet used in accounting.  The income statement provides information about changes from state one to state two; it has a definite starting and ending time period. Likewise, quantum theory measures the change between state one and state two, during some measurable time period.  In accounting, the balance sheet provides a description of the assets and properties of the original state.  It also provides a final description of the ending state after it has been impacted by the changes of the income statement.  Conversely, quantum theory does measure quite accurately the change in electrical values, but it has difficulty describing both of the initial state and the final state of the atom.  Theorists merely tell us that the quantum atom is not subject to detailed description, but rather is a depiction based upon a statistical probability approach. (ex. smeared electron cloud).  Scientists distill atomic structures of atoms through statistical probability and approximations that arise from the quantum philosophy.  This probability approach is also analogous to the work of actuaries.  In their work actuaries describe the longevity of say one million people.  Statistically, actuaries can show us that a calculated number of the one million people will die in a given period of time and the prediction accurately models the population described, but they are incapable of giving meaningful details of the final cause of death for each individual.  Quantum theory has the same problem, i.e., statistically accurate but not very helpful as to a beginning condition or a final state description.

The quantum philosophy has abandoned attempts to create a visual model that correlates with the electrical values quantum measures.  The Circular Model of the Atom serves as not only a periodic table but also as an atomic model that corroborates the basic electrical values as set forth by quantum theory and also gives a more classical visual basis for those values.  The remaining parts of this section will highlight how the Circular Model of the Atom provides new insights into different phenomena beginning with the Pauli exclusion principle.

[1] Mehra, J. and Rechenburg, H., 1982. The Historical Development of Quantum Theory, Vol I, Part I. New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 138.

[2] Davies, P., 1982. Other Worlds. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 12.



1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.