The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





Protons from the high energy accelerator in 1977 at Fermilab were targeted toward a nuclear target. Copper and platinum were used as the targets and detectors were set to find pairs of positive and negative charged muons. Depending upon the initial target utilized, the Y and Y' with opposite signs were found with masses of 9.5 and 10 GeV.

The Fermilab proton beam was capable of higher energies than previous experiments and the detector system was compatible for muons rather than lower energy electron-positron detection [1]. This was important in quark theory, because current quark theory was complete, and the "extra particles" necessitated a new kind of quark.

It is now accepted that the Y upsilon is related to the psi/J. The new quark is called B and the Y' upsilon is its counterpart with quark spins reversed.

[1] Trefil, J. S., 1980. From Atoms to Quarks. New York: C. Scribner & Sons, pp. 182-183.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.