The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Neutron Quark Theory

With the advent of high energy particle accelerators came deflection angles arising from impacting particles.  When coupled with the prevailing atomic model assumptions, the resulting data led to the theory of fractional charges and quark theory. Earlier endeavors were made to explain the nucleus in various terms.  A major attempt to define the nucleus in terms of protons and electrons in the nucleus was proposed by Sir Arthur Eddington.  Even after the discovery of the neutron he considered the neutron to be a bound state of an electron and a proton. Since Eddington's time neutron theory eventually has developed into a composite particle with fractional charge derived from up and down quarks.

The neutron quark theory has charge = 0, with fractional quark charge theory = -1/3, -1/3 & +2/3 and currently designated D, D, & U, (down, down, up) or neutrality.

Since Eddington's attempt, great strides have been made in antiparticle theory.  Now we have in addition to the positron, we have the antiproton to consider in nuclear structure.

The Circular Model of the Atom suggests the following:

Pair creation of sub-atomic particles results in particles originating with opposite charges and associated matter/antimatter characteristics.  Charge of positron and antiproton in negative field balance charges of electron and proton in positive segment of atom.

Positrons and antiprotons in a negative field do not annihilate because of mass differential between the two particles, positron charge offsets antiproton charge resulting in neutrality.

The electromagnetic considerations of the neutron are first, the antiproton charge (-) contribution.  Second, the positron charge (+) contribution which then offsets the antiproton charge. Third, the neutron originates in a bound state in the negative segment of the Circular Model of the Atom.  This contributes (-) charge.  The result is (-), (-), (+), or DDU. In summary, there is an alternative to 1/3, 2/3 fractional charges used in current neutron quark theory.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.