## PART VI## SUMMARYThe Circular Model of the Atom presents an opportunity for physics to function from a visual model of the atom: a model based upon field relationships between elements designed to reflect spatial characteristics within the atom. As the electrons in the atomic shells build-up at increasing distance from the nucleus, there is more space available. This necessitates that the lanthanide and actinide series be more than mere footnotes at the bottom of a periodic chart. Elements in the alkali metals and alkali earths have energy levels that shift to lower and higher levels in a manner not apparent with the present periodic table. The Circular Model's specific structural approach is in sharp contrast to the mathematical physics approach of seemingly endless mini-models. True, they are mathematically logical in themselves, but based on assumptions that are questionable at best, and at worst some have very tenuous ties to physical reality. This conceptual website is based on symmetries and relationships that have been drawn from the Circular Model. However, a number of experiments are supportive of the Circular Model of the Atom. A review of early experiments that formed the basis for present quantum physics is called for. Specifically, the Stern-Gerlach experiment can now be explained in a classical manner. The Circular Model is based upon a positive and negative dipolar field model. With a field approach as a starting point we can now make some order out of electron spin phenomena. This field approach leads to some new concepts about positive matter in negative fields that does not necessarily become annihilation. The basis of Pauli's exclusion rules and positive and negative spin states take on a more structured basis. The Circular Model provides new insights into sub-particle physical relationships and sources. Organization of the plethora of sub-particles is simplified both as to charge affiliation and origin with the new model. Repulsion forces of similar sub-particles in nucleosynthesis is greatly modified by the polarity approach of the Circular Model of the Atom. This in turn raises major questions associated with neutron quark theory. The buildup process within the positive vector and magnetic vectors of the electromagnetic eliminates the 1/3, 2/3 fractional charge of quarks. The neutral bosons associated with force processes is merely the difference between positive and negative aspects necessary for particleness. Other classical atomic models never had an explanation for electron movement when a weak magnetic field effect known as the anomalous Zeeman effect was studied. Pauli attributed its origin to the alkali metal and alkali earth series within the atom. His certitude as to its origin is tied to a specific locality, yet quantum statistical smoothing tends to approximations. A unique half shell electron flip has a sound basis when viewed in the context of Hund's half-filled-shell rules. The model provides a mechanism for equal and opposite reactions in conformity with Newton's laws. Discreteness as evidenced by atomic spectra is provided by this certitude approach to the electrons within the atom and is in stark contrast to the statistical probability approach to the current electron cloud concept of quantum physics. Quantum theory has a myriad of phenomena, but tunneling theory needs to be looked at in the context of positive and negative fields of the potential barrier. Quark theory leaves the realm of electron charge being indivisible. Recent experiments suggest that quark interaction spin phenomena and the 'real world' do not give predicted results. The gyromagnetic ratio conflict between theory and experiment cannot be ignored. When put within the context of a dipolar atom, then the angular momentum is blocked by the respective positive or negative poles from having 360 degree rotation, and we end up with 180 degrees of rotation and in conformity with experimental ratios. Insights into nuclear shell stability and some "magic numbers" can be derived from, first, half shell positive and negative polarity lines; second, we find numerous binding energy drops influenced by our internal polarity lines. Kaluza-Klein theory is the basis of an internal atomic dimension which we call 'the flip.' Current models of the atom do not unify that dimension within their internal structure. The "fifth dimension" and Maxwell's electromagnetic equations are not complete until boundary conditions and a bridge from the positive electric field to the negative magnetic field are considered. Einstein's forte was demonstrating the equivalence of acceleration and gravity in giving effects which were indistinguishable in either positive or negative accelerations. This conforms to Newton's mechanics of "equal and opposite forces to contrary parts." The Circular Model of the Atom with positive and negative fields combines these important laws. The inverse square law of light and gravity uses the same electromagnetic wave and are not separate phenomena. The missing mass problem is a consequence of incorrect atomic and nuclear theory. There is a negative field within the nucleus that is home to positive protons. This can be sustained by Pauli's exclusion principle being applied to positive and negative spin nucleons. On a philosophical basis, perhaps the sharpest criticism can be made of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. Yes, an attempt to measure momentum and location of a singular particle precisely is going to give uncertainty. However, the singularity they attempt to measure is not the real world of "things." The very most infinitesimal particle in the universe is a composite of negative and positive sub-components and characteristics that "exist" only when combined with opposites. Cosmology of the Big Bang falls short on several initial conditions and assumptions. First, that by extrapolation of the forces holding together present the quantum atom, we can get to an initial singularity. Again, opposites are necessary, and the present model does not reflect the negative mass within the atom. Secondly, gravity is integrated within the model at a time later than "particleness," yet elements of gravity must be present for particleness to be extant. Thirdly, there are no magnetic monopoles which the Big Bang models predict. Within all atoms, there is a diamagnetism as evidenced by the dipolar Circular Model. The atoms have to have the polarity buildup as evidenced by that model. This is why we get discrete emission and absorption spectra. Red shifting of light from the distant stars is used in connection with the Doppler effect in determining speeds and distances of deep space objects. Yet, within the Circular Model of the Atom we have the same effect happening in energy shifts from the positive to the negative field. Are many of the deep stellar objects, merely more negative on a local field basis, rather than a measure of acceleration, particularly with benchmark spectral lines coming from calcium measurements that may be due to "slider" phenomena found in the S orbitals? Last, the model gives the structure necessary to account for the missing energy in collider experiments and resultant Cabibbo angle puzzle. Finally, that positive energy gap provides new insights into wave-particle duality. The list of supportive evidences and ramifications are many, but now, new directions for physical exploration are called for. Perhaps it can be best summed in a statement from Steven Weinberg's lecture at the 1986 Dirac Memorial Lecture at Cambridge University: "Beauty is our guide in theoretical physics, but it's not the beauty of the equations printed on a piece of paper that were searching for, it is the beauty of principles, how they hang together. We want principles that have a sense of inevitability" [1]. [1] Feynman, R. & Weinberg, S., 1986. |