The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Alkali Doublets

The doublet lines of sodium and calcium are among the brightest spectral lines found.  Why are the alkali doublets recipients of this intense light? It was found that the sodium doublet radiated from two lines, D1 and D2. The D1 line was based on a 2P1/2-----2S1/2 term. Both terms originate in the positive hemisphere of the Circular Model of the Atom and are "regular or erect".  The 2P1/2 has one half integer electron multiplet incorporated within its term. With both terms originating in the positive hemisphere, the differential between terms is relatively modest. 

The second term 2P3/2 has two half integer electrons as well as the negative field origin. This sets up a significant differential between the 2P3/2 term and the 2S1/2 term.  When light is emitted from these spectral terms it is very intense because of the much greater dipole differential.

A similar explanation regarding this negative dipole differential can be shown by helium's first ionization potential of 24.6 electron volts.  Lithium, the very next element after helium has a first ionization potential of 5.39 volts. Why the considerable difference?  First, there is a difference in shells, but beryllium, next to lithium has a 1S0 ground state term and first ionization potential of 9.32 eV.  Helium's position in the Circular Model of the Atom is within the negative field hemisphere. Lithium and beryllium's position is across the polarity border and in the positive field hemisphere. The structure within the atom is the key to these energy differentials as illustrated by the Circular Model of the Atom.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.