The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Inverted Spectra

In spectroscopic analysis there a phenomena resulting in spectral line intervals occurring in either an ascending or descending sequence. In the alkali spectra, the spectral line components representing greater J with greater energy is referred to as "erect". When the component with greater J has less energy it is denoted as "inverted". What is the cause of this phenomena? The determination of whether spectral lines are "erect" or "inverted" for the various elements is merely the position that element acquires in the buildup or 'aufbrau' process and its relationship to the dipole Circular Model of the Atom. "Erect" terms originate in the positive field and "inverted" from the negative field with adjustments for sub-shell closures as demonstrated by spin state exhibit with this website.

Candler writes, "When a group of electrons is more than half full the deep terms arising from it are inverted.  Thus the 2P ground term of Al I is erect, but the 2P ground term of Cl I is inverted; the 3P ground term of silicon is erect, but that oxygen is inverted" [1].  Another authority submits: "....that regular multiplets are usually found in atoms or ions in which the first half of a sub-shell is being filled in, and inverted multiplets for those in which the second half is being filled in" [2].

F. Hund did extensive analysis of electron spins and shell filling and formulated his half-filled shell rules. First: “Of the terms given by equivalent electrons, those with greatest multiplicity lie deepest, and of these the lowest is that with the greatest L.”  Second:  “Multiplets formed from equivalent electrons are regular when less than half the shell is occipied, but inverted when more than half the shell is occupied” [3].

Less than half filled shell filling resulted in generally positive spins.  More than half filled shell resulted in negative spins and "inverted terms".  What is the underlying cause of Hund's half-filled shell rules?  It is simply the effects of dipolarity within the atom as characterized by the Circular Model of the Atom.

The circular periodic table model/atom accounts for this in a very simple way.  A key feature is the elemental buildup within an electromagnetic field in a dipole manner.  This results in segment of the elements ground state originating in a positive field with the balance emanating from the positive field.  This would result in either "erect" or "inverted" lines as being dependent on internal structure of the atom rather than the probabilistic electron cloud approximation approach that is currently the quantum mode.

[1] Candler, C., 1964. Atomic Spectra and the Vector Model. Princeton: Van Nostrand Company, Inc., p. 159.

[2] Kuhn, H. G., 1969. Atomic Spectra. London: Longmans, p. 275.

[3] Herzberg, G., 1944. Atomic Spectra & Atomic Structure. New York: Prentice Hall, p. 135.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.