The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Nonstoichiometric Compounds

The Law of Definite Proportions is one of the basic laws of chemistry and its validity has been demonstrated in many compounds.  Yet metallic compounds composed of oxides, sulfides, etc., are nonstoichiometric. Why? These solid compounds have some other basis of formulation other than the simple law of proportions.  High Tc superconducting materials are in the nonstoichometric category.

An explanation of nonstoichiometric metallic compounds can be made with the help of the circular periodic table/model. An example:  Zinc (30) has an oxidation state of +2, and generally forms compounds in this second oxidation state. This brings the cation back to the positive pole. What happens to copper (I) cation, and (II) cation is different. Copper (29), is against the polarity line.  The first ionization state of copper is also against the polarity line, but with the electron missing. The second ionization of copper (II) is impacted by several factors at this point:           

(A) Evidence of energy differentials between the right hemisphere positive energy and left hemisphere negative energy field can be ascertained from the spin states. Positive spin states have more energy than negative spin states. 

(B) The law of alternating multiplicities pertains to ions as well as electrons.

(C) The positive polarity barrier causes copper ionization states to move contrary to normal cation ionization states.

(D) The sliding of S shell electrons. Nickel (28), has two outer S shell electrons in its configuration.  Yet copper, the next element has a single S shell electron in its configuration. Where did the second S shell electron disappear? This accounting for shifting of electrons in the S shells is a distinctive characteristic of the Circular Model of the Atom. Thus the copper (II) ion moves over to the D10 position within Group II elements.

(E) Antiferromagnetism boundary originates along positive pole elements in group I.

As a result of these structures, (polarity, boundaries, fields, rays, multiplicities, spin, etc.) within each neutral atom, there are areas that are more positive and areas that are more negative. Each element, in forming nonstoichiometric metallic compounds is influenced by the opposite cation or anion and seeks to adjust proportions to produce a neutral compound.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.