The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





The question of parity violations in weak interactions was one of the most exciting discovery's in the mid-fifties.  Lee and Yang's original paper raised interesting questions about parity non-conservation in Beta decay processes.  They stated.  “If parity is not strictly conserved, all atomic and nuclear states become mixtures.... The presence of such interactions would affect angular distributions in nuclear reactions....The violation of parity conservation would lead to an electric dipole moment for all systems” [1].

The Circular Periodic Model of the Atom is a dipole model based on the concept that opposite factors are necessary for being. The current concept of a classical atom really does not include space inversion.  Most of the material available concerns quantum atom models, but the Circular Model of the Atom has a sign reversal flip suggesting an attribute previously unknown in a classical atom. The authors of a book on symmetry principles, W. H. Gibson and B. R. Pollard, discuss space inversion as applicable mainly to quantum mechanics.

We now turn to the symmetry of space inversion, which although applicable to classical systems, only gains its full significance in the study of quantum mechanics.  In the passive picture space inversion involves changing the spatial reference frame from a right-handed to a left-handed one.  Hence invariance under space inversion is equivalent to the indistinguishability of left and right....The discovery of the violation of space inversion variance in weak interactions in 1956 led to a critical re-examination of all the accepted symmetry principles from both the experimental and theoretical points of view [2].

They further noted. “The geometrical operation of space inversion has the special property that when applied twice it is equivalent to the identity transformation, i.e. no change" [3].   The twisting flip of the electron ordering sequence that occurs half way in an atomic or nuclear shell buildup implies a weak force parity violation that was suggested by Lee and Yang. A second twisting flip with the Circular Model returns an electron to its original state.

The electrons emerging from the decaying cobalt were ejected asymmetrically. “Before long a score of physicists had independently proposed a reinterpretation of the Wu experiment that salvaged the principle of reflection symmetry. In essence they proposed that nature does not see itself in the P mirror but in a ‘magic mirror’ where the signs of all electric charges are reversed. In this mirror the mirror image of an electron is a positron (a positive electron) and the mirror image of a radioactive cobalt nucleus is a similar nucleus made of antimatter. (antineutrons and antiprotons)....The decay particles emitted by the antimatter nuclei of radioactive cobalt would also tend to travel out of the mirror, or downward, thereby completing the mirror image of the Wu experiment” [4].

A much more uncomplicated explanation is that electrons and protons in bound states within the atom can change sign. The sign is dependent on the positive or negative field of the Circular Model of the Atom. It is very simple to attribute the antimatter field to the negative portion of the model. As near as can be determined the space inversion experiments of Lee and Yang has been performed on cobalt, nickel, and elements that are on the left side of the circular periodic table/model atom.  Do we get similar results from elements on the right side of the model, or is Wu's experiment a result of a bipolar atom cobalt nucleus?

Why does beta decay result in each particle emission varying in velocity?  The Circular Model of the Atom gives specific placement to the nucleons within the field. We know this because the exclusion principle applies to nucleons as well as electrons.  With our model conforming on an electron basis, it would also hold true on nucleons. Hence, each point in the positive or negative field is at a different distance from the two respective poles.  When we get beta emission on a continuing basis, the field is consistently changing. Therefore each beta emission would have varying velocity depending on spin, field, and mother isotope.

[1] Lee, T. D. & Yang, C. N., n.d. Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions. Physical Review, 104(1), p. 254.

[2] Gibson, W. M. & Pollard, B. R., 1976. Symmetry Principles in Elementary Particle Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 119.

[3] Gibson, W. M. & Pollard, B. R., 1976. Symmetry Principles in Elementary Particle Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 122.

[4] Wigner, E., 1965. Violations of Symmetry in Physics. Scientific American, December, pp. 28-36.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.