The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





Timothy Ferris's book outlines conventional cosmological theory. "Standard Big Bang theory assumes that the expansion of the universe must slow down as time passes, since the energy of expansion was imparted all at once, in the beginning, and the mutual gravitational attraction should have been acting as a brake on it ever since" [1]. The assumption is that the energy of expansion was from some singular point.  Yet we know that light is electromagnetic in nature and has force associated with it. At the same time, the electromagnetic wave can be described as an electrical portion with vector forces in one direction, and magnetic vector forces perpendicular and opposite in orientation.  This duality of forces has not been sufficiently accounted for in the Big Bang hypothesis.

The red shift and the Hubble hypothesis of stellar distance is still open to question. We observe huge 'red shifts' in neutron stars.  What is missing?  The atomic electrons in a neutral atom structure are eventually ionized out of a neutron star. This leaves unbalanced nucleons in the negative field becoming more negative as light is radiated. Hence, the red shifts are atoms and stars becoming more negative rather than higher velocities. This occurs because of the singular approach to particles, atoms, light, etc., rather than duality.

Silk, addresses the question of singularity.  "Let us now consider an era so early that the entire observable universe was contained within its own Compton wavelength. This is our ultimate limit of our theory of gravity.  At this instant, known as the 'Planck time,' only 10-43 second after the singularity, all the matter we now see in the universe, comprising some millions of galaxies, was compressed within a sphere of radius equal to one-thousandth of a centimeter, the size of the point of a needle.  At this moment, the observable universe was far smaller even than an atomic nucleus-it was only 10-33 centimeters in diameter" [2].

Robert Dicke, theoretically questions:  "There are peculiar puzzles about this Universe of ours.  As it gets ever older, more and more of the Universe comes into view, but when new matter appears it is isotopically distributed about us, and it has the appropriate density and velocity to be part of a uniform Universe....The puzzle here is the following: how did the initial explosion become started with such precision, the outward radial motion become so finely adjusted as to enable the various parts of the Universe to fly apart while continuously slowing in the rate of expansion?" [3]. Are the equations of the Big Bang singular in derivation, or do we need an opposites model?

[1] Ferris, T., 1977. The Red Limit. 2nd ed. New York: William Morrow, p. 208.

[2] Silk, J., 1980. The Big Bang. New York: W. H. Freeman, p. 104.

[3] Dicke, R. H. 1970. Gravitation and the Universe. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, p. 62.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.