## PART I## INTRODUCTORY SUPPORTIVE EVIDENCES## Kaluza-KleinWith the advent of Einstein's general theory of relativity in 1915, the concept of field theory came to the forefront of physics and abolished the idea of gravity as action at a distance force of Newton. Einstein's general relativity put forth the concept of geometry of matter as the basis of gravitational fields. Kaluza took Einstein's gravitational equations and expanded them from X, Y, Z, and t coordinates into five dimensions rather than the four that Einstein used. The result was that he ended up with Maxwell's equation describing electromagnetic processes. The latter part of Einstein's life was spent in an attempt to unify electromagnetism and gravity. What was this hidden fifth dimension that has puzzled science all these many years? Is it mere coincidence that Kaluza's expansion of Einstein's general relativity equation should result in Maxwell's equation? "The weakness of this higher-dimensional work was the absence of any good reason as to why any dimensions would compactify, let alone the right number, so as to leave the ordinary four-dimensional ‘large’ world" [1]. What characteristic of matter will fill the requirements of both Maxwell and Einstein? Does matter have a need for a fifth dimension to accomplish a purpose? Yes, there is a hidden dimension that is necessary to separate the totally opposite positive and negative energy fields and the matter within those fields. Some physicists found no significance to the equation. “All this early work is rather apologetic in tone; the fifth dimension is viewed as a mathematical trick devoid of any physical significance" [3]. No, it is not a mathematical trick, the atom is at the heart of electromagnetic wave phenomena and it must have the internal structure to absorb and emit radiation that has two totally disparate vectors. Maxwell's equation had positive and negative field components along with the concept of curl. Is there a similar approach to matter? Are the positive and negative fields of the Circular Model with the flip effect the material equivalent of Maxwell's model? Einstein and Bergmann viewed Kaluza's equation as a unification of gravity and electromagnetism. “Kaluza's roundabout way of introducing the five dimensional continuum allows us to regard the gravitational and electromagnetic fields as a unitary space structure”[4]. What is the purpose of the fifth dimension? Is it some mathematically elegant equation, or does it tie into the greater understanding and description of reality? With the Circular Model approach, we have the necessary components to fill Einstein's requirements for a positive potential field (electromagnetic) and a negative potential field (gravitational). Einstein and Bergmann wrote, “So, far, two fairly simple and natural attempts to connect gravitation and electricity by a unitary field theory have been made, one by Weyl, and the other by Kaluza. Furthermore, there have been some attempts to represent Kaluza's theory formally so as to avoid the introduction of the fifth dimension of the physical continuum. The theory presented here differs from Kaluza's in one essential point; we ascribe physical reality to the fifth dimension whereas in Kaluza's theory this fifth dimension was introduced only in order to obtain new components of the metric tensor representing the electromagnetic field” [5] They further went on to write: "Furthermore it is much more satisfactory to introduce the fifth dimension not only formally, but to assign to it some physical meaning. Nevertheless there is no contradiction with the empirical four dimensional character of physical space” [6]. In recent years there has been renewed interest not only in Kaluza's five dimensional approach to matter, but now a new eleven dimensional symmetry has been added. The Circular Model represents the opportunity of dividing the description of matter into the eight divisions or octets having unique characteristics in group theory. If positive and negative major fields that originate along the polarity lines with the time dimension are added, it rounds out to the eleventh dimension overlaying the five Kaluza-Klein dimensions. The Kaluza-Klein theory was the application of Einstein's general theory of relativity stated in the three spatial dimensions, along with time, into a five dimensional description, with the result being Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Einstein spoke of Kaluza's five dimensional approach as the bridge between electromagnetism and gravity. “Our investigation was based on the theory of ‘bridges’” [7]. [1] Appelquist, T., Chodos, A., & Fruend, P., 1987. [2] Appelquist, T., Chodos, A., & Fruend, P., 1987. [3] Appelquist, T., Chodos, A., & Fruend, P., 1987. [4] Einstein, A. & Bergman, P., 1987. On a Generalization of Kaluza's Theory of Electricity. In: [5] Einstein, A. & Bergman, P., 1987. On a Generalization of Kaluza's Theory of Electricity. In: [6] Einstein, A. & Bergman, P., 1987. On a Generalization of Kaluza's Theory of Electricity. In: [7] Einstein, A. & Rosen, N., 1935. The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity. |