The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Lepton Particle Characteristics

Lepton family traits are centered on the stable electron. It's stability can be associated with the electromagnetic wave components and its two vector components of opposite sign. Electromagnetism is based upon a high frequency-low frequency segments to act or react to similar or opposite charge of the particle. The wave directional vector is displaced one wavelength with regards to the other and carries the magnitude of the charge. (either positive or negative) Just as it is impossible to generate partial wave components, it isn't credible to have fractional charges. However, there is much more than positve and negative charge characteristics with electrons and positrons.

One of the unique aspects of the Circular Model of the Atom is the lanthanide contraction. It occurs when the nucleonic mass increases, while at the same time the atomic radii diminishes. What the Circular Model demonstrates is radii contraction as the additional added nucleon moves closer to the negative dipole. This why platinum's atomic radius is so small in relation to cesium. The location of platinum in the Circular Periodic Model is in the most negative area of the model. Negative fields and particles invoke a constricting effect when they are dominant, whereas positive fields and particles have an expanding and enlarging effect.

The same argument can be made with leptons. Particles that start from an electron foundation essentially have buried within, but less dominate a positive wave vector segment. The dominate negative contracting aspect of the Lepton family results in positive and negative particle segments making up the electron. This is why electrons respond to both positive and negative signs. In scattering experiments these have been labeled up and down quarks.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.