The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Theoretical physicists have struggled in attempting to discover the underlying cause of high Tc superconductivity which was first exhibited in perovskite structures.  Explanations of some of the  structural  features of superconductivity using the current theories, which would include the present model of the atom as well as certain data from the periodic table of the elements, etc.,  have met with only mixed success. There is however, the Circular Model of the Atom is capable of manifesting the various structures necessary to explain most, if not all of superconducting phenomena as described in numerous scientific journals.  The purpose of this website is to demonstrate how, with the help of this newer model many of the prominent features of superconductivity can rationally be explained.

The Circular Model of the Atom is also a clearer periodic table of the elements that gives new insights into atomic relationships which can be effectively be applied to superconductor theory.  The new model is based on the “aufbau” or buildup principle. The ensuing fermion buildup results in positive and negative spin states and accounts for shifting S-state electrons during this buildup process.  The present periodic table does not reflect these important features.

As the different elements form they do so within positive and negative polarity fields.  Each major shell therefore has some highly positive elements, as well as highly negative elements. The fields have supersymmetry features incorporating alternating multiplicities which exhibit half integer and full integer spin states. They are organized in a manner not shown in the present periodic table, but are found in the Circular Model of the Atom.

First, the elements are distributed between a positive and negative energy field.  The positive hemisphere has plus 1/2 spin electrons except in group II alkali earths where there occurs a shell closure. Positive field electrons that are distant from the field pole have some spin variation.

Second, the opposite, or negative hemisphere elements have electrons of negative spin.  At subshell closures, in a negative field spins are positive. Some positive spin rare earth electrons are encircled by opposite spin neighboring electrons, for example, Europium #63.  These rare earth F-shell electrons fill up in a sequence which make the rare earths spin states difficult to distinguish from each other. 

By incorporating polarity within the periodic table, a model is generated with energy gaps that are necessary for both semiconductor and superconductor theory. The resultant model gives a basis for both theories in the same model. For example, some group IV elements, (silicon and germanium), have full integer ground state spin that are the basic substrate materials used for doping with either n-type or p-type dopants. Depending on the type semiconductor desired, the doping materials of elements on either side of group IV give different results. Moving in either direction produces a phase shift. This is the area of the Circular Model of the Atom where negative polarity occurs. 

Evidence of the existence of a negative pole barrier can be seen by the large drop in binding energy between Group IV representative elements and Group V representative elements.  This is where the energy gap occurs in semiconductors. Prior to overcoming the barrier, more energy is needed by the electrons to overcome repulsion of the similar sign (-) negative barrier.

A characteristic of semiconductors is that energy has to be put in, to control various functions.  Why? Because, electrons are increasingly being repelled by the same sign negative polarity barrier.  This is where energy gaps occur that are found in semiconductor theory.  Opposite, within the atom, are found the superconductor energy gap at the positive pole with polarity and electron flow converse to the semiconductor gap.

In the positive polarity area, are the elements most involved with high Tc superconductivity, i.e., copper, lanthanum, yttrium, calcium, strontium, and barium, etc. How is it possible to reconcile both semiconductor and superconductivity theory in the same model? Through the use of positive and negative poles and gaps in transition from one field type to another. They both have energy gaps, but of a different type.  "The energy gap in superconductors differs from the gap in semiconductors in a very fundamental way.  In semiconductors, the gap prevents the flow of electrical current... In a superconductor, on the other hand, current flows despite the presence of a gap" [1].    

Opposite the semiconductor gap is the positive pole with copper playing a major role with its oxides in superconductivity. When substitution of negative hemisphere elements or representative elements of - 1/2 spin elements occurs in the positive hemisphere it negates superconductivity. An example is the substitution of Zn, Ni, Co, Fe, into superconducting compounds. They lower Tc in copper oxides even with very minor amounts [2]. Thus < 5% nickel kills superconductivity because its ground state spins are predominantly negative. 

Another evidence of positive polarity can be determined by a short review of atomic radii dimensions. The elements that are most electropositive have the largest radii with cesium, rubidium and potassium being the three largest. Moving across the periodic table, dimensions get smaller as the elements get less electropositive in nature.  A positive polarity boundary occurs in the alkali metals. The Circular Model of the Atom incorporates both electropositive and electronegative boundaries.

More support of a positive polarity barrier would be the shifting of spin states to antiferromagnetic in copper oxides. This transition from a negative field to a positive field occurs between element 28 (nickel) and element 29 (copper).  Evidence of a positive polarity barrier is the Madelung-rule (irregular filling of energy levels in alkali metals and alkali earth elements) which, when coupled with copper ions suggests irregular shifting of energy levels. The ion shifts down to a lower shell level and backwards from the normal direction of succeeding multiplicities indicate a barrier.

[1] Simon, R., & Smith, A., 1988. Superconductivity. New York: Plenum Press, p. 41.

[2] Rao, C. N., 1988. Solid State Chemistry, 74(153).




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.