The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





Analysis of fermion spin characteristics of the sub-particle components of the Circular Model of the Atom, when coupled with Pauli's exclusion rules, indicate that not only weak interactions, but all force interactions furnish evidence of broken symmetry.

Just as there are positive and negative charges, the wave equivalent of matter displays dual, but disparate vector components. Light's wave vector components are diametrically opposite in characteristic and transverse to each other by 90o degrees.  Dissimilar components in all particles and waves are applicable to all matter and energy.  High frequency and low frequency components are necessary for particleness. This can only occur at recurrent nodal points. (Planck blended evidence of the two electromagnetic component concept into one absorption/emission curve known as Planck's constant).

Just as atoms and waves have two components, sub-particles exist only where the high frequency-low frequency nodal points coincide. The Circular Model of the Atom demonstrates both high frequency-low frequency hemispheres, but also a potential emissive energy differential that + > -.  This high frequency-low frequency source degrades into a single emissive signal. 

Oliver Heaviside demonstrated that the original source signal could be reset for clarity. "Distortion destroys a signal by causing its higher-frequency components to outpace its lower-frequency ones, turning a sharp pulse into a blur.  Distortionless transmission incorporates induction loading to balance the equation... [cited earlier in the article] Delays occur when the magnetic field induced by a current briefly stores, then discharges a signal's energy. But Heaviside proved that the addition of inductance to a circuit could enable it to transmit without distortion" [1].

The minute gap or delay described in the above quote of the magnetic vector component of the electromagnetic wave is vital. Heaviside worked around the gap to solve magnetic frequency distortions. The matter equivalent of the gap shows up as the neutrino gap in beta decay and in sub-particle tracking chambers as neutral particles.

When the two stable particles the proton and electron are accelerated or collided at higher energy levels, then high frequency-low frequency reappearing nodal points occur at recurrent levels of increasingly higher energy. The sub-particle mass triplet states found in high energy physics have as a parent the proton (a composite composed of postive-greater-than-negative matter). This positive-greater-than-negative matter-relationship holds for the two vector components of the transverse electromagnetic wave. Start with the proton mass energy inequality, then join the electromagnetic wave asymmetric features with increasingly higher energy levels, this results in a particle zoo.

The sub-particle mass triplet states found in high energy particle physics are the product of the original particle used in the colliders.

A comparison can be made between the particle triplet states produced in the colliders and the Circular Model. Both exhibit a positive segment, a negative segment and a very small segment of neutrality between the two.  In the case of the atom this neutrality is exhibited by inventing the neutrino or antineutrino (depending on the process) to balance equations.

The drop in nuclear binding energy at specific points within the nucleus is further evidence of higher and lower energy states as depicted by our model.

The same basic relationships of + > -, and 0 are present in the atomic, nuclear, and sub-particle high energy examples. This relationship of positive-greater-than-negative is very minute (one positive component wavelength in emission processes, and one wavelength in negative absorption operations).

[1] Nahin, P. J., 1990. Oliver Heaviside. Scientific American. June, p. 125.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.