The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Oxidation States

The oxidation states of the elements that form high Tc composites have to be in the ionization state necessary to form the half-filled shell insulators (Circular Model). Superconducting planes of copper (II) and O2 -- form full shell compounds leaving no electron (hills) or positron (holes) to disrupt superconductivity.  The Circular Model of the Atom exhibits where the necessary balance between cations and anions to form neutral superconducting materials is found.

For example, it has been exhibited that extra lanthanum, as well as oxygen can lead to loss of superconductivity. The high Tc insulating elements, Bi, Y, La, Tl, Ba, all serve the purpose of shielding the copper oxide planes from either positive or negative influence. Elements with half-filled shells opposite the flow direction act as insulators.  The Cu2+ - O2- planes are effective conductors because there are no holes (positron sites - negative hemisphere) or humps (electron sites - positive hemisphere) to impede conductance.  If there are oxidation states that are not back to the respective anion or cation polarity position, then it impedes conductivity.  In agreement with the Circular Model of the Atom the Cu2+ ion is now a completely filled positive half-filled shell cation.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.