The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





Discrete is a term frequently used in describing atomic phenomena.  In physics we denote its meaning as, “made up of unconnected parts.”  In the spectroscopic analysis of atoms, we get both emission and absorption spectra from the same atom suggesting distinct components. What causes this discreteness?  In the Bohr hydrogen atom model, it was based on the emission of electromagnetic radiation when going from one energy state to a lesser energy state.  On analysis, this raises some questions.  What portion of the spectra is caused by the electron cloud?  The spectral lines are specific and precise, whereas a probability cloud denotes a random philosophy of science.  Max Born's electron cloud was preceded by A. Sommerfeld's mathematically precise electron orbit working its way through the nucleus contrary to specific delineations so necessary in the spectroscopic area.  Why do both discrete emission and absorption spectral lines occur together, yet they are diametrically opposite in purpose (one absorbs radiation and one emits radiation)?  How does the positive nucleus emit radiation that is not neutralized by the orbiting electron cloud?

The current concept of the atom has the electrons orbiting in an electron cloud around the nucleus.  However, it is also known that electrons have a characteristic spin, either plus one half or minus one half.  If they are orbiting, there should be a transition phase from plus one half to minus one half or vice versa.  There is no transition phase.  These fields have either a positive or negative orientation that is influencing the spin of the electron up or down.  This is a much more definitive approach than having a nebulous cloud.

The question of energy and the atom is complex and there are no easy answers, but if the Circular Model is used, there is a positive field with a negative counterpart. This allows the building up principle to act upon the electrons and nucleons in a manner that keeps the completed atom essentially neutral.  These field differences lead to asymmetrical patterns that explain the internal structure of the atom. It is the arrangement of the sub-fields that results in a neutral atom.

If atomic phenomena are discrete, then the origin of that attribute must come from discrete parts within the atom.  Quantum approximations are not the ultimate description.  True, mathematical physics provides a statistical description of the atomic values, but specific characteristics are obscured.





1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.