The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Electron Tunneling

Quantum theory has an aspect called tunneling that is not found in classical atomic theory. The idea is that a ‘potential barrier’ composed of the protons within the nucleus sets up an energy hurdle that must be overcome for beta decay to occur.  This has been called a `quantum phenomena' that has no classical explanation.  If we can visualize an electron as if at the starting point of a roller coaster, then as it rolls down and back up, classically on its own, it can never go higher than its original starting position.  Yet electrons have been experimentally observed outside the barrier hurdle that is higher than the initial electron energy.  If an individual proton's positive energy values are added together, then enormous coulomb repulsion energy is the model result. The resultant barrier is nearly insurmountable unless a retreat to quantum theory is used.  Where is and what is the composition of the barrier?

If instead of a monolithic proton barrier, we use Pauli's exclusion principles that describe fermions in the nucleus in both spin up and spin down states, then the barrier diminishes.  We have part of the protons in a negative field state and part in a positive field state, with some to the left of the polarity line and some to the right of the polarity line.  This allows the electron to go outside the barrier in a classical manner without reference to mysterious quantum tunneling.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.