The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Missing Mass

Evidence has been building over the last few years that a substantial amount of mass is missing in the universe, which can't be accounted for with present theories and observations.  First, how is it known that mass is missing?  Perhaps the strongest argument is from the observation of the spiral galaxy arms. The curvature that is observed and that which is predicted from present laws of physics do not correlate to each other.  Not only is mass missing, but it is mass of a negative nature.   Michael Disney's book addresses the puzzle of missing mass.   "...Thus the weight of a spiral is inferred from the amount of gravitation required to hold its spinning parts together.  Since the visible mass is apparently not sufficient, one is forced to the notion of a dark halo....To supply the necessary gravitational forces one must invoke otherwise unreasonable large amounts of massive invisible 'X' " [1].

When antimatter is discussed, it is usually in the context of Dirac's theories and equations of the electron and positron. This raises the question of annihilation when positive and negative matter come in contact with each other. Annihilation happens when pair particles have exact opposite charge, spin and mass, with the result being light or photon product.  If, in fact we take a field approach or a Einstein geodesic line approach to the universe, then there must be a system or organizational mode that keeps the particles from coming together in annihilation reactions.

What greater system than the atomic structure itself?   Einstein suggested, that curvature is a result of the matter within the universe.  We have positive and negative curvature, matter, and energy.  A neutral atom is a composed of negative matter in a positive field and positive matter in a negative field. The fields provide the curvature.  We do not get annihilation because each particle in a field approach has different energy values.

The presently held concept states that an atom is a positive nucleus surrounded by negative electron probability cloud, with the two components resulting in a neutral atom.  The Circular Model of the Atom suggests a positive and negative field with electrons and nucleons in both field-positive and field-negative orientations.

The nucleons in the positive and negative field hold the key to the major portion of the missing mass problem. Ratios of mass differences between electrons and protons, and electrons and neutrons are very large, and if one half of these particles are spinning in a negative field opposite to the spin particles of the positive field, then we are supplying a negative attractive mass component to the universe.

When matter is in the negative portion of the field, generally -1/2 spin fermions are the result. In the weaker areas of the field (farthest from the negative pole in distance), we get more perturbations. The opposite is true in the positive field.  In group IV of the current table we have a polarity flip to overcome, as well as being spatially distant from the positive pole.  There are some perturbations from neighboring fermions that can change some spin orientations, but the inner core fermions in their phase space follow the field polarity. Areas of perturbations are quite common in group IV and V of the periodic table.  For example elements carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and lead fall in successive shells and this is why there are more naturally occurring isotopes here than in other periodic groups.

Many articles have been written about "shadow matter" and its attributes, in that it interacts with ordinary matter only in the gravitational field which within the present concept of gravity means hardly any interaction.  The concept put forth here is that the negative field with the different particles in it is the gravitational field.  Why does not annihilation occur in the positron-electron sense?  It does not because every particle has a different energy level within its respective positive or negative field and to get particle annihilation, the energy, spin and mass must have equality except for sign. Thus, the world we live in can have negative matter in the manner that has been described without having an exactly parallel anti-proton, antineutron, or positron counterpart.

[1] Disney, M., 1984. The Hidden Universe. New York: Mcmillan, p. 219.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.