The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.





Iron, cobalt, and nickel are ferromagnetic and their spins are ordered in a manner consistent to a negative polarity as seen in the Circular Model of the Atom. (see figure 3 spin states) With the above elements spin states compatible with negative polarity, what then happens to the elements at the positive pole?  First, we find a sign change consistent with positive polarity that results in the alternating ordering system found in the copper oxides, and net magnetization is gone.

If the d8, d9, and d10 states of copper are taken, then the polarity change is between d8 and d9 states. This has the effect of copper (I) and copper (II) being antiferromagnetic in nature.  With copper in the (II) state it is on a different shell level that is attempting to compensate, with either more oxygen or distorted copper bonds to withdraw back to copper (I) state.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.