The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.




Alternative Residual Radiation Theory

For a number of decades a major aspect of cosmology has centered on the Big Bang theory.  Isotropic radiation when measured indicate a Kelvin value of about 2.6 degrees.  In attempting to account for this residual temperature, a mathematical extrapolition process going backward in time reaching a point of dispersion of matter and energy, now commonly known as the Big Bang.

An alternate is suggested. The Cabibbo Angle is evidence of a fundamental inequality between positive and negative segments in both electromagnetic waves and matter itself. The 13 degree factor in scattering experiments strikes at the very core of the Big Bang cosmology.

Source: Puddephatt, R. J. and Monaghan, P.K. 1986. The Periodic Table of the Elements. Oxford Chemistry Series 32, Second Edition. Clarendon Press, p. 33.


Planck's constant defines the outer limits of radiation emission and absorption oscillations and it defines the potential difference. This is the source of the residual background radiation.

In another area of great interest today, superconductivity, we find that more atoms from one area (oxygen) have to be added to another area (copper) to create the superconducting layers that form in the molecules.  How much more? About 6 1/2% to 7% more.




1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.