The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.

The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom. Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.


Binding energy drops off between carbon and nitrogen and silicon and potassium is explained.

The model correctly accounts for the Madelung-rule (or Goudsmit rule).

The model provides an explanation for the lanthanide contraction.


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The above table shows the electron buildup of the elements. The yellow is the distinguishing electron for each respective element. The elements on the right side of the polarity line (running north and south) are in a positive field, the elements on the left side are in a negative field. Notice the buildup increases in one field and then "flips" over to the opposite field--demonstrating Hund's half-filled shells. The table requires Adobe Flash 11. For a completed model see below:

In this version of the model, the blue elements are donor elements grouped in families. The yellow are recipient families. The orange are transitional elements. The green are elements in the lanthanide group and the red are actinide elements.


1. Atoms are dipole magnets at the atomic level.

2. Demonstrates Hund's half filled shells, electron tunneling, and a visulalizable aufbau buildup of the elements.

3. Visual explanation of Anomalous Zeeman Effect.

4. Strong and weak patterns revealed.

5. Lanthanide contraction is explained.

6. Provides a visual basis for ferromagenetism, paramagnetism and antiferromagnetism.